Cross-Cultural Research Methods in Psychology (Culture and Psychology)
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They were also asked to think about how well the trait adjectives represented their mother the mothers were not in the study. American participants showed a clear difference in brain responses between thinking about the self and the mother in the medial prefrontal cortex , a region of the brain typically associated with self-presentations. However, in Chinese participants there was little or no difference between thoughts of the self and thoughts of the mother, suggesting that self-representation shares a large overlap with the representation of the close relative.
However, culture can affect our understanding of mental health in different ways. What may be seen as normal in one culture for example, modesty could be seen as deviating from the norm in another, and might even be treated as a disorder or a social phobia.
Cross-Cultural Research Methods in Psychology by David Matsumoto
Our concept of mental health, like the terms in which we define ourselves, is significantly shaped by the mores of the society in which we grow up. In Western societies, children of both sexes are often exhorted not to be shy; extreme shyness may even be identified as social phobia, a form of mental illness. In other parts of the world, quietness or timidity may be seen simply as modesty and may be highly valued, especially in girls. In addition, a number of culture-specific syndromes have been identified.
Koro , which is found mostly in Asia, is the delusion on the part of a man that his genitalia are retracting in a sign of his imminent death, and that when his genitalia disappear entirely, he will die. In Mexico and parts of Central America, it is thought that a glance or a glare from someone with mal de ojo the evil eye can bring on illness or cause a valuable object to be broken. The person with the evil eye is believed to be more powerful than the victim and to be acting with malign intent or envy; but even a look of admiration from someone with mal de ojo can cause harm. Special practices, such as those known to a curandero, or faith healer, may be needed to avert the suffering.
The existence of such culture-bound syndromes has been recognized since the early s by the World Health Organization in its ICD Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders and more recently by the American Psychiatric Association, as some of these syndromes have been included with their respective classifications of mental illnesses.
Clearly culture has a massive effect on how we view ourselves and how we are perceived by others—we are only just scratching the surface. The field of cross-cultural psychology is increasingly being taught at universities across the world. The question is to what extent it will inform psychology as a discipline going forward. Some researchers see this line of inquiry as an extra dimension of psychology, whereas others view it as an integral and central part of theory-making. But only by knowing about these effects will we ever be able to identify the core foundations of the human mind that we all share.
View the discussion thread. Skip to main content. Login Register. Many Cultures, One Psychology? By Nicolas Geeraert Gains in knowledge about the tremendous variety of cultures around the world are shaking the foundations of research on human behavior and mental processes. Page DOI: Facebook Twitter.
Photo by Rao Mubasher. Bibliography Cousins, S. Culture and self-perception in Japan and the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology — Henrich, J. Heine, and A. The weirdest people in the world? Behavioral and Brain Sciences — Ma, V.
Individualism versus collectivism: A comparison of Kenyan and American self-concepts. Basic and Applied Social Psychology — Markus, H. Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review — Masuda, T.
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Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Smith, P. Fischer, V. Vignoles, M. Zhu, Y. Zhang, J.
Fan, and S. The first is comparison of case studies, the second is controlled comparison among variants of a common derivation, and the third is comparison within a sample of cases . Unlike comparative studies, which examines similar characteristics of a few societies, cross-cultural studies uses a sufficiently large sample so that statistical analysis can be made to show relationships or lack of relationships between the traits in question .
These studies are surveys of ethnographic data.
Cross-cultural studies are applied widely in the social sciences , particularly in cultural anthropology and psychology. The first cross-cultural studies were carried out by 19th-century anthropologists such as Edward Burnett Tylor and Lewis H. One of Edward Tylor's first studies gave rise to the central statistical issue of cross-cultural studies: Galton's problem . In the recent decades historians and particularly historians of science started looking at the mechanism and networks by which knowledge, ideas, skills, instruments and books moved across cultures, generating new and fresh concepts concerning the order of things in nature.
In Cross-Cultural Scientific Exchanges in the Eastern Mediterranean — Avner Ben-Zaken has argued that cross-cultural exchanges take place at a cultural hazy locus where the margins of one culture overlaps the other, creating a "mutually embraced zone" where exchanges take place on mundane ways.
From such a stimulating zone, ideas, styles, instruments and practices move onward to the cultural centers, urging them to renew and update cultural notions. The modern era of cross-cultural studies began with George Murdock Together with Douglas R. White , he developed the widely used Standard Cross-Cultural Sample , currently maintained by the open access electronic journal World Cultures. Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication , developed by Geert Hofstede in s. It describes the effects of a society's culture on the values of its members, and how these values relate to behavior, using a structure derived from factor analysis.
It has been refined several times since then . With the widespread access of people to the Internet and the high influence of online social networks OSN on daily life, users behavior in these websites have become a new resource to perform cross-cultural and comparative studies. A study on Twitter examined the usage of emoticons from users of 78 countries and found a positive correlation between individualism-collectivism dimension of Hofstede and people's use of mouth-oriented emoticons .
A recent study proposed a computer framework that automatically mines data from social networks, extracts meaningful information using data mining , and computes cultural distance between multiple countries . Major issues have been reported about the methods of data collection in cross-cultural studies  , including difficulty in access to people from many nations, limited number of samples, negative effects of translation, positive self-enhancement illusion, and some unreported problems. These issues either cause difficulty to perform a cross-cultural study or have negative impacts on the validity of the final results .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Specialization in anthropology and sister sciences.
Cross-Cultural Psychology Definition
Outline History. Archaeological Biological Cultural Linguistic Social. Social Cultural. Research framework.